Swimming is a sport in which there is a great diversity among participants. There are both recreational and competitive swimmers, ranging in age from preschool through college. Most swimming-related orthopedic injuries are related to overuse and are seen in competitive athletes. However, many injuries can be prevented. Use the following tips and guidelines to help keep your athlete safe.

Safety tips

The following are ways to help prevent swimming-related sport injuries:

  • Never swim alone. Make sure the area is supervised.
  • Don’t run on pool decks and wet areas. Abrasions and contusions (bruises) commonly occur from careless falls.
  • Don’t dive in shallow water. Avoid diving into shallow pools less than 3 feet deep. This will help prevent serious head and neck injuries.
  • Find out if the starting block is at the shallow end. Swimmers using starting blocks in the shallow end need to be instructed on proper technique.
  • Prepare for emergencies. Plan what you would do if a player is injured in or out of the water. Know how deep the pool is. Know where lifeguards and first aid stations are.
  • Wear the right gear.
    • Properly fitted goggles
    • Swim caps
    • Sandals in the pool area
    • Sunscreen as necessary

Use of physical therapy

Physical therapy often is useful to strengthen weak muscles and stabilize joints. It can also improve a swimmer’s endurance and ability to train. Physical therapy is necessary to treat all of the medical and orthopedic conditions listed below and should be prescribed by a doctor.

Medical conditions

The following is a chart of different treatments for common medical conditions affecting swimmers.

Orthopedic conditions

Overuse injuries in swimming are related to repetitive stress to the swimmer’s body. Symptoms of an overuse injury usually include pain or discomfort, muscle weakness, alterations in stroke style, and the inability to keep up intense levels of training. Multiple factors must be considered for proper treatment. Workload, defined as either yardage or pool time, may need to be decreased during a time of injury. An evaluation of stroke technique may identify weaknesses, bad habits, or muscle-tendon imbalances that require correction. Lastly, the genetic predisposition to be excessively loose jointed, flexible, or stiff may require special consideration or treatment.